Options for business finance can be used under the pursuing heads:
(1) Short Term Finance:
Short-term finance is needed to fulfill the current needs of business. The current needs may include payment of fees, salaries or wages, repair expenses, payment to financial institution etc. The need for short term finance develops because sales revenues and purchase payments are not properly same at all the time. Sometimes sales can be low as compared to purchases. Further more sales may be on credit while purchases are on cash. So brief term finance is needed to match these disequilibrium. cheap military flights
Sources of short-run fund are as follows:
(i) Bank Overdraft: Bank overdraft is very widely used method to obtain business finance. Beneath this client can bring certain sum of money over and above his original account balance. Therefore it is simpler for the businessman to meet brief term unexpected expenses.
(ii) Bill Discounting: Bills of exchange can be cheaper at the banks. This kind of provides cash to the holder of the invoice that can be used to fund immediate needs.
(iii) Improvements from Customers: Advances are generally demanded and received for the confirmation of orders However, these are also used as source of financing the businesses necessary to execute the work order.
(iv) Installment Buys: Purchasing on installment offers more time to make payments. The deferred obligations are being used as a source of financing small expenditures which are to be paid immediately.
(v) Costs of Lading: Bill of lading and other move and import documents are being used as a guarantee for taking loan from banks and this loan amount can be taken as finance for a while period.
(vi) Financial Establishments: Different financial institutions also help businessmen to get out of financial issues by providing short-term lending options. Certain co-operative societies can arrange short term financial assistance for businessmen.
(vii) Trade Credit: It is the usual practice of the businessmen to buy raw material, store and spares on credit. Many of these transactions cause increasing medical data payable of the business that are to be paid after having a certain time period. Goods are offered on cash and repayment is made after 31, 60, or 90 times. This allows some independence to businessmen in conference financial difficulties.
(2) Moderate Term Finance:
This fund is required to meet the medium term (1-5 years) requirements of the business. Such finances are basically required for the balancing, modernization and exchanging machinery and plant. These are generally also needed for re-engineering of the organization. They will aid the management in completing medium term capital projects within planned time. Following will be the sources of medium term finance:
(i) Commercial Banks: Commercial banking institutions are the major supply of medium term finance. They supply loans for different time-period against appropriate securities. In the termination of conditions the loan can be re-negotiated, if required.
(ii) Hire Purchase: Hire purchase means buying on obligations. It allows the organization house to have the required goods with payments to become in future in agreed installment. Needless to say that some interest is always charged on outstanding amount.
(iii) Economical Institutions: Several financial corporations such as SME Loan company, Industrial Development Bank, and so on., also provide medium and long-term finances. Besides providing finance they also provide technical and managerial assistance on different matters.
(iv) Debentures and TFCs: Debentures and TFCs (Terms Financing Certificates) are also used as a method to obtain medium term finances. Debentures is an acknowledgement of loan from the company. It could be of any duration as decided among the parties. The debenture holder enjoys go back at a fixed rate of interest. Under Islamic mode of financing debentures has been replaced by TFCs.
(v) Insurance firms: Insurance companies have a huge pool of funds contributed by way of a plan holders. Insurance companies scholarhip loans and make opportunities out with this pool. Many of these loans will be the source of medium term financing for various businesses.
(3) Extended Term Finance:
Long term finances are those that are required on long lasting basis or for over five years tenure. They may be basically desired to meet structural changes in business or for heavy modernization expenses. They are also needed to initiate a brand new business plan or for an everlasting developmental projects. Pursuing are its sources:
(i) Equity Shares: This method is quite widely used across the world to raise permanent finance. Equity shares are subscribed by public to build the capital base of a huge scale business. The equity share holders stocks and shares the money and loss of the business. This process is safe and secured, in a way that amount once received is merely paid back at the time of wounding from the company.
(ii) Maintained Earnings: Retained earnings are the reserves which are made from the extra earnings. In times of need they might be used to financing the organization project. This is also called ploughing back again of profits.
(iii) Rental: Leasing is also a supply of permanent finance. With the help of leasing, new equipment can be obtained without the heavy outflow of cash.
(iv) Financial Organizations: Different financial institutions such as former PICIC provide permanent loans to business houses.
(v) Debentures: Debentures and Participation Term Accreditation are also used as a way to obtain permanent financing.